Leslie Linguo

ESL Grammar Course

...to help you in your conversations with Leslie Linguo
The Past Simple
We use the past simple in several contexts. The most common use of the past simple is to talk about something which happened at a specific moment in the past or something which has finished and which is not happening now.

To make the affirmative, we add -ED to the end of the base form of the verb:

EXAMPLES:
I WASHED before breakfast.
They ARRIVED twenty minutes ago.

NOTICE that many important verbs do not have an -ED past form. These verbs are IRREGULAR. For example;
Brazil WON the match. (past of win)
We SAW her yesterday. (past of see)

If you want to see the specific rules for adding -ED in unit 14.

To form QUESTIONS and NEGATIVES in the past simple, you use the auxiliary verb DID with the base form of the verb.

EXAMPLES:
When DID THEY ARRIVE?
They DID NOT ARRIVE until four o'clock.
He DIDN'T WASH the car yesterday.

NOTICE that if we are asking about the subject of the sentence then we do not use the auxiliary verb:

Who DID Bob KISS? Bob kissed MARY.
WHO KISSED Mary? BOB kissed Mary.

We looked at subject questions in more detail in unit 10.

We use the past simple to describe PAST STATES AND HABITS.

EXAMPLES:
He lived in Rome for eight years. (but not now)
Shakespeare worked in London all his life. (he is dead now)

We also use the past simple to describe a PAST EVENT that happened AT A DEFINITE TIME OR PLACE.

EXAMPLES:
We went on holiday last August.
Did you have a good time on holiday?
Shakespeare died in his home town of Stratford.

Finally, we also use the past simple to talk about HYPOTHESES, like when we use conditionals, which we will study in unit 86.

EXAMPLES:
I wish I HAD a lot of money. (I don't have a lot of money)
If I WON the lottery, I would travel all over the world. (I have not won the lottery)

We will see the difference between the past simple, the past continuous and the past perfect in unit 40.
Contents
The Basic Sentence
Unit 1: The Basic Sentence
Unit 2: The Subject
Unit 3: The Verb
Unit 4: Subject and Verb
Unit 5: Negative Sentences
Unit 6: Short Forms
Unit 7: Word Order
Questions
Unit 8: Question Words
Unit 9: Making Questions
Unit 10: Subject Questions
Unit 11: Short Answers
Unit 12: Question Tags
Unit 13: Indirect Questions
Verbs
Unit 14: Verb Forms
Unit 15: Using Verb Forms
Unit 16: The Verb to Be
Unit 17: Auxiliary Verbs
Unit 18: The Imperative
Unit 19: Present Simple Formation
Unit 20: Using the Present Simple
Unit 21: The Past Simple
Unit 22: The Present Continuous
Unit 23: The Past Continuous
Unit 24: Present Perfect Formation
Unit 25: Using the Present Perfect
Unit 26: The Past Perfect
Unit 27: Modal Verbs
Unit 28: The modal verb CAN
Unit 29: The modal verb COULD
Unit 30: The modal verbs MAY and MIGHT
Unit 31: The modal verbs WILL and SHALL
Unit 32: The modal verb WOULD
Unit 33: The modal verbs MUST and SHOULD
Unit 34: HAVE TO, NEED TO and NEEDN'T
Unit 35: Necessity and Advice
Unit 36: BE ABLE, OUGHT, HAVE GOT TO and HAD BETTER
Unit 37: GOING TO
Unit 38: USED TO
Unit 39: Verbs and Present Time
Unit 40: Verbs and Past Time
Unit 41: Verbs and Future Time
The Passive
Unit 42: Passive Sentences
Unit 43: Passive Verb Formations
Unit 44: Using the Passive
The Noun Phrase
Unit 45: Nouns and Noun Phrases
Unit 46: Plurals of Unit Nouns
Unit 47: Mass Nouns
Unit 48: Proper Nouns and Verbal Nouns
Unit 49: Genetive
Unit 50: Personal Pronouns
Unit 51: A, AN, SOME and ANY
Unit 52: THE
Unit 53: Nouns without A or THE
Unit 54: The Correct Article
Unit 55: THIS, THAT, THESE and THOSE
Unit 56: Mass and Unit in Sentences
Unit 57: Quantity
Unit 58: BOTH, EITHER and NEITHER
Unit 59: ONE
Unit 60: Relative Clauses
Types of Sentences
Unit 61: Empty Subjects
Unit 62: Simple Sentence Types
Unit 63: Complex Sentence Types
Adjectives and Adverbs
Unit 64: Adjectives and Adverbs
Unit 65: Position of Adjectives
Unit 66: Position of Adverbs
Unit 67: Some Important Adverbs
Comparison
Unit 68: Forms for Comparison
Unit 69: Comparing Two
Unit 70: Comparing Three or More
When?
Unit 71: Adverbs of Time
Unit 72: Prepositions of time
Unit 73: How Often?
Prepositions
Unit 74: In the World
Unit 75: In a Town
Unit 76: Outdoors
Unit 77: Indoors
Unit 78: In a Room
Unit 79: Objects and People
How and Why?
Unit 80: How?
Unit 81: Purpose and Use
Unit 82: Reason and Consequence
Connecting Ideas
Unit 83: Similar Ideas
Unit 84: Opposite Ideas
Unit 85: Sequence of Events
Unit 86: Conditions