Leslie Linguo

ESL Grammar Course

...to help you in your conversations with Leslie Linguo
Conditions
Consider the following scenarios:

1. A teacher talks to his students at the beginning of the school year:

"If you study you will pass your exams.

Q: Are the students going to pass their exams?
A: We don't know. It depends.
A: If they study they will pass their exams but if they do not study they will not pass their exams.

2. In February, after failing their partial exams, the teacher says to his students:

If you studied you would pass your exams.

Q: Have the students passed any of their partial exams?
A: No, because they have not studied.

3. In July, after failing their final exams, the teacher says to his students:

If you had studied you would have passed your exams.

Q: Did the students pass their final exams?
A: No, because they did not study.

THE REAL CONDITION In real conditions we do not know if the condition is true. Here are some examples:

If I study, I will pass my exams. (I do not know if I will study)
If it rains tomorrow, I will stay in. (I do not know if it will rain)
If Maria is coming to the party, you can tell her the news. (I do not know if Maria is coming)
But she won't be able to come if she is in London now. (I do not know if she is in London)
I'm sure she will come if John has remembered to tell her. (I do not know if John has remembered)
If they saw each other last night, she must know about it now. (I do not know if they saw each other)

We can also use unless:

If I study, I will pass my exams. = I will not pass my exams unless I study
If I study, I will pass my exams. = I will fail my exams unless I study
I'll go to the beach unless it rains tomorrow. = I'll go to the beach if it does not rain tomorrow.
Unless she's in London, she will come. = If she is not in London she will come.

THE UNREAL CONDITION

In unreal conditions we always use the PAST TENSE.

If I studied more, I would pass my exams. (but I don't study; I am failing all my exams)
If Maria was coming, you could tell her the news. (but she isn't coming; you can't tell her)
I would have more money if I didn't smoke. (but I smoke; I have less money)
I'd phone him if only I could find his number. (but I can't find it; I can't phone him)
If I found a lot of money, I'd give it to the police. (I don't expect to find any; I'm imagining)

If I had studied more, I would have passed my exams. (but I didn't study; I failed all my exams)
If Maria had come, you could have told her the news. (but she didn't come; you couldn't tell her)
I would have more money if I hadn't bought that car. (but I bought the car; I have less money)
I'd have phoned him if only I had found his number. (but I couldn't find it; I didn't phone him)
If I found a lot of money, I'd give it to the police. (I don't expect to find any; I'm imagining)

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Contents
The Basic Sentence
Unit 1: The Basic Sentence
Unit 2: The Subject
Unit 3: The Verb
Unit 4: Subject and Verb
Unit 5: Negative Sentences
Unit 6: Short Forms
Unit 7: Word Order
Questions
Unit 8: Question Words
Unit 9: Making Questions
Unit 10: Subject Questions
Unit 11: Short Answers
Unit 12: Question Tags
Unit 13: Indirect Questions
Verbs
Unit 14: Verb Forms
Unit 15: Using Verb Forms
Unit 16: The Verb to Be
Unit 17: Auxiliary Verbs
Unit 18: The Imperative
Unit 19: Present Simple Formation
Unit 20: Using the Present Simple
Unit 21: The Past Simple
Unit 22: The Present Continuous
Unit 23: The Past Continuous
Unit 24: Present Perfect Formation
Unit 25: Using the Present Perfect
Unit 26: The Past Perfect
Unit 27: Modal Verbs
Unit 28: The modal verb CAN
Unit 29: The modal verb COULD
Unit 30: The modal verbs MAY and MIGHT
Unit 31: The modal verbs WILL and SHALL
Unit 32: The modal verb WOULD
Unit 33: The modal verbs MUST and SHOULD
Unit 34: HAVE TO, NEED TO and NEEDN'T
Unit 35: Necessity and Advice
Unit 36: BE ABLE, OUGHT, HAVE GOT TO and HAD BETTER
Unit 37: GOING TO
Unit 38: USED TO
Unit 39: Verbs and Present Time
Unit 40: Verbs and Past Time
Unit 41: Verbs and Future Time
The Passive
Unit 42: Passive Sentences
Unit 43: Passive Verb Formations
Unit 44: Using the Passive
The Noun Phrase
Unit 45: Nouns and Noun Phrases
Unit 46: Plurals of Unit Nouns
Unit 47: Mass Nouns
Unit 48: Proper Nouns and Verbal Nouns
Unit 49: Genetive
Unit 50: Personal Pronouns
Unit 51: A, AN, SOME and ANY
Unit 52: THE
Unit 53: Nouns without A or THE
Unit 54: The Correct Article
Unit 55: THIS, THAT, THESE and THOSE
Unit 56: Mass and Unit in Sentences
Unit 57: Quantity
Unit 58: BOTH, EITHER and NEITHER
Unit 59: ONE
Unit 60: Relative Clauses
Types of Sentences
Unit 61: Empty Subjects
Unit 62: Simple Sentence Types
Unit 63: Complex Sentence Types
Adjectives and Adverbs
Unit 64: Adjectives and Adverbs
Unit 65: Position of Adjectives
Unit 66: Position of Adverbs
Unit 67: Some Important Adverbs
Comparison
Unit 68: Forms for Comparison
Unit 69: Comparing Two
Unit 70: Comparing Three or More
When?
Unit 71: Adverbs of Time
Unit 72: Prepositions of time
Unit 73: How Often?
Prepositions
Unit 74: In the World
Unit 75: In a Town
Unit 76: Outdoors
Unit 77: Indoors
Unit 78: In a Room
Unit 79: Objects and People
How and Why?
Unit 80: How?
Unit 81: Purpose and Use
Unit 82: Reason and Consequence
Connecting Ideas
Unit 83: Similar Ideas
Unit 84: Opposite Ideas
Unit 85: Sequence of Events
Unit 86: Conditions