Leslie Linguo

ESL Grammar Course

...to help you in your conversations with Leslie Linguo
Complex Sentence Types
In unit 62 we saw simple sentence types and we saw that simple sentence types can be made progressively more complex by adding extra information.

But there are some structures that are considered more complex even in their basic form.

To understand NOUN PHRASES, look at unit 45.
To learn about VERB FORMS, look at unit 14.


SUBJECT + VERB + NOUN PHASE + BASE FORM OF VERB


Theylettheir childrenleave early
Lookat himrun!
Shehelpedmepass the exam
Shesawmetake the exam

In this type, you can also use: feel, hear, help, make, notice, see, watch.


SUBJECT + VERB + NOUN PHASE + to BASE FORM OF VERB


EverybodyexpectsArgentinato win
The bosswantsusto work late today
Shehelpedmeto pass the exam
Igotthe carto work

Notice that help can be followed by the base form of the verb with AND without TO.

In this type, you can also use: allow, ask, forbid, get, help, leave, prefer, would like, would love.


SUBJECT + VERB + NOUN PHASE + -ING FORM OF VERB


Theystoppedmefrom making a mistake
Shesawmetaking the exam
Igotthe carworking

Notice that saw can be followed by the base form of the verb without to AND the -ING form of the verb and that got can be followed by the base form of the verb with to AND the -ING form of the verb.

In this type, you can also use: feel, find, hate, have, hear, keep, leave, like, listen to, look at, love, notice, remember, see, stop, watch.


SUBJECT + VERB + NOUN PHASE + PAST PARTICIPLE

This is also referred to as the causative have. It is a kind of passive and we use it when we pay somebody else to do a job for us.


Shehadher haircut
Weare gettingthe carserviced
Ineedmy toothremoved
Iwanthimkilled

SUBJECT + VERB + that CLAUSE


Heknowsthat you are having problems
Theysaidthat the weather would be fine
Isuggestthat you see a doctor
Wethinkthat Brazil will win the World Cup

With verbs related to advising or requesting, this structure can be used with the subjunctive (the 3rd person singular does not end in -s).

Isuggestedthat he see a doctor
Iinsistthat John come to the meeting
The teacherrequestedthat the students be on time

Also, notice that verbs like tell require a noun phrase.

The teachertoldthe studentsthat they could go home
IremindedJohnthat he had to come to the meeting

Also notice that we can also leave out the word that.

Theysaidthatthe weather would be fine
Theysaidthe weather would be fine

SUBJECT + VERB +ADJECTIVE + that CLAUSE


Theyweresurprisedthat I had got the job
Shewassurethat he hadn't forgotten
Itisessentialthat you study

With adjectives related to advising or requesting, this structure can be used with the subjunctive (the 3rd person singular does not end in -s).

Itisessentialthat he study
Itisurgentthat you be there on time
Itisa good ideathat John come to the meeting

Also notice that we can also leave out the word that.

Iwashappythatyou passed your exam
Iwashappyyou passed your exam

IF or WHETHER

IF and WHETHER are almost always interchangeable. WHETHER is more formal.

I'm not sureifit will be ready on time
I don't knowwhetherhe has passed his exam
I didn't knowifhe had passed his exam
He wonderedifhe could see his exam
She wonderedifshe should tell him
We discussedwhetherto tell him or not

The main difference between if and whether is that IF introduces conditional sentences.

If you sing, I'll pay you ten pounds.
Peter will catch you if you fall.

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Contents
The Basic Sentence
Unit 1: The Basic Sentence
Unit 2: The Subject
Unit 3: The Verb
Unit 4: Subject and Verb
Unit 5: Negative Sentences
Unit 6: Short Forms
Unit 7: Word Order
Questions
Unit 8: Question Words
Unit 9: Making Questions
Unit 10: Subject Questions
Unit 11: Short Answers
Unit 12: Question Tags
Unit 13: Indirect Questions
Verbs
Unit 14: Verb Forms
Unit 15: Using Verb Forms
Unit 16: The Verb to Be
Unit 17: Auxiliary Verbs
Unit 18: The Imperative
Unit 19: Present Simple Formation
Unit 20: Using the Present Simple
Unit 21: The Past Simple
Unit 22: The Present Continuous
Unit 23: The Past Continuous
Unit 24: Present Perfect Formation
Unit 25: Using the Present Perfect
Unit 26: The Past Perfect
Unit 27: Modal Verbs
Unit 28: The modal verb CAN
Unit 29: The modal verb COULD
Unit 30: The modal verbs MAY and MIGHT
Unit 31: The modal verbs WILL and SHALL
Unit 32: The modal verb WOULD
Unit 33: The modal verbs MUST and SHOULD
Unit 34: HAVE TO, NEED TO and NEEDN'T
Unit 35: Necessity and Advice
Unit 36: BE ABLE, OUGHT, HAVE GOT TO and HAD BETTER
Unit 37: GOING TO
Unit 38: USED TO
Unit 39: Verbs and Present Time
Unit 40: Verbs and Past Time
Unit 41: Verbs and Future Time
The Passive
Unit 42: Passive Sentences
Unit 43: Passive Verb Formations
Unit 44: Using the Passive
The Noun Phrase
Unit 45: Nouns and Noun Phrases
Unit 46: Plurals of Unit Nouns
Unit 47: Mass Nouns
Unit 48: Proper Nouns and Verbal Nouns
Unit 49: Genetive
Unit 50: Personal Pronouns
Unit 51: A, AN, SOME and ANY
Unit 52: THE
Unit 53: Nouns without A or THE
Unit 54: The Correct Article
Unit 55: THIS, THAT, THESE and THOSE
Unit 56: Mass and Unit in Sentences
Unit 57: Quantity
Unit 58: BOTH, EITHER and NEITHER
Unit 59: ONE
Unit 60: Relative Clauses
Types of Sentences
Unit 61: Empty Subjects
Unit 62: Simple Sentence Types
Unit 63: Complex Sentence Types
Adjectives and Adverbs
Unit 64: Adjectives and Adverbs
Unit 65: Position of Adjectives
Unit 66: Position of Adverbs
Unit 67: Some Important Adverbs
Comparison
Unit 68: Forms for Comparison
Unit 69: Comparing Two
Unit 70: Comparing Three or More
When?
Unit 71: Adverbs of Time
Unit 72: Prepositions of time
Unit 73: How Often?
Prepositions
Unit 74: In the World
Unit 75: In a Town
Unit 76: Outdoors
Unit 77: Indoors
Unit 78: In a Room
Unit 79: Objects and People
How and Why?
Unit 80: How?
Unit 81: Purpose and Use
Unit 82: Reason and Consequence
Connecting Ideas
Unit 83: Similar Ideas
Unit 84: Opposite Ideas
Unit 85: Sequence of Events
Unit 86: Conditions